Both incised and painted designs are recorded, in some even applique boss is used. Some of the important sites include Atranjikhera, Noh, Jodhpura and Narhan. They would return to the site, burn the cow dung heaps and start settling for a short period of cultivation of their sturdy crops. Massive walls constructed of stone rubble with clay and mud-brick filling enclosed an area of approximately 600 square yards 500 square meters. Generally, Chalcolithic age had grown in river valleys. People ate beef but no traces of eating pork are found e People of Navdatoli grew ber and linseed f Cotton was produced in black cotton soil g Traces of rice cultivation are also found. Houses were arranged along the sides of wide streets with large sump pots and hearths located in specific areas of the houses, often adjacent to the street.
It is difficult to ascertain the Harappan influence on their lives. Finally, it must be mentioned that some of the peripherally lying sites among them especially Utnur, Kupgal, Kodekal and Palavoy have yielded huge deposits of cow dung ash. Some are Pre-Harappan or early Harappan Kalibangan in Rajasthan and Bhanawali in Haryana and some are Harappan and Post-Harappan. The first occupation here is dated to C 2900 B. Thus, we see a chain of connections in at least archaeological terms, demonstrated over the whole length of India during Chalcolithic period. Carinated bowls and lotas are the other forms.
This decidedly indicates the first village settlement in the region during a late Chalcolithic phase. Metals like Copper and its alloys were used in making axes, chisels, knives, fishhooks, pins, rods. Metal Age People Generally, Chalcolithic cultures had grown in river valleys. First metal to be used in this age was copper, so it is called Chalcolithic age. The Chalcolithic culture of Central, Eastern and Southern regions of India show altogether different features. The Atlas of World Archaeology. The Chalcolithic cultures of central India show a sudden decline around 1000 b.
The main objects were various kinds of celts, harpoons, antennae swords, rings, and anthropomorphs. It is in the next two phases that a complete individualization takes place. Of these Narhan is one of the significant sites. They had made considerable progress in ceramic as well as metal technology. It is around this time that Kili Ghul Mohammad and Damb Sadat occupations took place in Baluchistan region. The occurrence of large number of copper tools found from this site makes it a significant occurrence.
Terra-cotta bull figurines and a fragment of a terra-cotta cart suggest that the people of Harappa were among the first to develop wheeled carts for transporting goods across the plains. In South India the river valleys of the Godavari, Krishna, Tungabhadra, Pennar and Kaveri were settled by farming communities during this period. The Chalcolithic was seen as a new -lithic age, a part of the in which copper was used, which may appear paradoxical. An ear ornament has been found from Prabhas culture. One of the largest Chalcolithic settlements. Rome: Istituto Italiano per l'Africa e l'Oriente, 2000.
The decorations are mainly in the form of squares, waves and steps. Cattle, goats, sheep and pigs were domesticated as well as consumed. The period is marked by very well painted wheel-made pots. A red-slipped ware with decoration executed in black paint forms the other important ceramic group. They were reoccupied after four to six centuries.
Dwelling structures are still prepared by sun baked clay and there appears to be more emphasis on clusters of smaller rectangular rooms, each one of them maintaining a door which opens outside but without any inner connection between the rooms. The fabric is thick and gritty and in the younger phases wheel thrown. Thus, we see that from Mundigak to Kot Diji there are numerous early farming communities settled at different nooks of valleys which developed their own characteristic features. Over the slipped surface there are different patterns of painted motifs. Foreign Invasion: Piggot 1950 , Gordon 1958 and Wheeler 1947 have separately supported a foreign invasion theory to explain the rather abrupt decline of Indus culture. Fish bones and fishhooks attest to active fishing.
Some of the commonly used tools were axes, chisels, bangles, beads, hooks, etc. The pinkish-red wares have both thick and fine fabrics. Iron is frequently referred to in the Vedas. Rice was cultivated in Inamgaon and Ahar. Kulli Ware: Like Amri-Nal Kulli also belongs to the southern limit of Baluchistan and Pakistan. Multichrome artistic pottery is soon replaced with black-on-red bichrome styles. Allchins 1982 considered Savalda as only a stylistic variant of the Jorwe.