He founded the Holy Roman Empire, strengthened European economic and political life, and promoted the cultural revival known as the Carolingian Renaissance. As sole ruler Charlemagne launched an extraordinarily active career which involved him in a wide range of activities. Charlemagne revived learning in Western Europe by inviting scholars to his court, seeing that his nobles and children were educated, including both his sons and his daughters. That such was his motive is doubtful at best. He then moved swiftly and defeated a mighty host outside of Narbonne at the River Berre, but failed to take the city. Nevertheless, the monastery of Fulda, the bishopric of W ürzburg, and new settlements such as Paderborn became centers of organized missionary activity.
Thus the public and private nature of political control were inseparable, as were the secular and the religious aspects of kingship. But the death of Charles in April 810 was soon followed by that of Pepin. Yet its failure at Charles' hands put an end to any serious Muslim expedition across the Pyrenees forever. This was a very strict guide to how a monk's life and everyday work should be completed. Personal Appearance Charlemagne was large and strong, and tall. At his court he gathered scholars from all over Europe, the most famous being the English cleric Alcuin of York, whom he placed in charge of the palace school.
It was a unit of both money and weight. Louis the Pious tried to fight but his supporters deserted him seeing that he was the weakest. Charlemagne was crowned king of the West Franks in Noyon France on October 9, 768. A later Holy Roman emperor, Frederick I Barbarossa ruled 1152—90 had Charlemagne canonized, or declared a saint. He defeated the Duke of Hrodgaud of Friuli who was inciting a rebellion against him. The Byzantine influence is most clearly seen in the Palace Chapel of Aachen Aix-la-Chapelle , which was a conscious imitation of the imperial residence at Constantinople. Martel's son, Pepin the Short Pippin the Younger , however, became the first Carolingian king of the Franks in 751.
Charlemagne was married five times and had numerous concubines and children. This proposal, though unsuccessful, was the starting point of a new papal policy. Military and diplomatic concerns did not distract Charlemagne from concerns about the governance of his realm. He erected four dioceses in Bavaria , , , and and gave them Boniface as and over all Germany east of the Rhine, with his seat at. Within the year Pepin invaded Italy to protect the pope against the Lombards, and in 756 he again had to rush to the pope's aid. Carolingian Culture Charlemagne's support of art and letters had several purposes beyond the general improvement of culture and literacy in the empire. Post-Roman mess After the break up of the Roman Empire in the late 5th-century, its eastern Byzantine half flourished while the western region disintegrated into a collection of fragmented kingdoms without any central authority.
. This was accompanied by speculation on the nature of the Frankish king's authority over an imperium Christianum. Charlemagne Expands the Kingdom Charlemagne expanded the Frankish Empire. In line with Frankish custom Charlemagne assumed control of the vast lands Carloman had inherited and a less serious dispute was continued thereafter with Carloman's descendants who took refuge in the court of Desiderius. Commerce boomed One of the most important changes Charlemagne made was abandoning the gold standard and putting all of Europe on the same silver.
At first he had such an aversion to the title that he declared that he would not have set foot in the Church on the day they were conferred if he had known what the Pope intended, even though it was a great feast day. On 26 September 715, Ragenfrid's Neustrians met the young Theudoald's forces at the. This is still widely repeated in popular culture today. Carloman died in 751, after which Charlemagne ruled alone. In 725 he brought back the Agilolfing Princess Swanachild as a second wife.
He was certainly aware that diversity was a reality in his vast realm, precluding the possibility of a unitary system of governance, with one notable exception: his conquered subjects must accept Christianity, which meant that the ruler must do whatever was needed to mount a missionary effort, to put in place an ecclesiastical organization, to recruit and train clergy to meet the spiritual needs of the new converts, and to provide the physical and monetary resources required to sustain Christian worship. His work did not survive him. These enactments, known as the Capitularii had the force of law and were executed directly by the royal agents. He forced the to accompany him, and Duke submitted to Frankish suzerainty. A noteworthy achievement was the creation of a system by which he could supervise his administrators in even the most distant lands; his missi dominici were personal representatives with wide powers who regularly inspected their assigned districts. Martel's reputation increased considerably as a result, and he attracted more followers.
Serious attempts were nonetheless made to communicate the elements of the faith to the laity in their vernacular. The expanded Frankish state Charlemagne founded was called the Carolingian Empire. In 741 Pepin had become mayor of the palace, and in 751 he deposed removed from office the last Merovingian king and was declared king of the Franks, a powerful Germanic tribe that lived in the region today known as France. He crushed one Umayyad army at Arles, as that force sallied out of the city, and then took the city itself by a direct and brutal frontal attack, and burned it to the ground to prevent its use again as a stronghold for Umayyad expansion. During his Italian operations Charlemagne also declared war against the , a Germanic tribe who threatened the northeastern frontier of Francia. Much of Charlemagne's rule involved warfare as he sought to unite Germanic people.
Early life Charlemagne, the son of and Bertrada, was born in 742. In those days family surnames had not yet been adopted and people were known by nicknames to distinguish them from other people with the same name. He died on January 28, 814, and was buried at his palace at Aachen. But other pieces of evidence suggest that Charlemagne took the imperial title seriously. Each Monday, this column turns a page in history to explore the discoveries, events and people that continue to affect the history being made today. Those willing to accept vassalage swore under oath to accept the king as their overlord and to be loyal to him; in return they were rewarded with benefices in the form of offices or grants of land to be exploited for their personal benefit as long as they remained loyal and served their lord.