Behavioral Theories The Behavioural Theories sought to identify the specific behaviours of leaders that lead to their leadership success. Critics point out that this is not always an accurate measurement of leadership effectiveness. The theory was popularized by Thomas Carlyle, a writer and teacher. In the job-centered approach, the work was divided into routine tasks and leaders monitored workers closely to ensure that the prescribed methods were followed and productivity standards were met. What you can do is keep mindful of the interactions and factors that are affecting your ability to lead effectively, and minimize them.
Transactional leadership is often used in business and Transactional leaders are task and outcome-oriented. Here managers try to create a work atmosphere in which everyone is relaxed, friendly, and happy. Research conducted by Vroom and other management scholars has demonstrated that decisions consistent with the model have been successful. Leadership Style Identifying leadership style is the first step in using the model. In this section, we review major efforts to identify important leadership behaviors. The effectiveness of a given pattern of leader behavior is contingent upon the demands imposed by the situation.
In this example, your parents had to use contingency theory to help you hone your talents so you could be successful in your chosen vocation. People who are very task oriented will do well when conditions are either very favorable or very unfavorable. The researchers suggested that in the short run, depending on the situation, the managers should exercise some flexibility in their leader behavior. Therefore, their work environment is usually highly structured. Laissez-faire leaders use their power very rarely. Different studies do not agree about which traits are leadership traits, or how they are related to leadership behavior. Use your own judgment when analyzing situations.
Effective leadership is contingent on matching a leader's style to the right setting. Consequently, he can manage on task-orientation or people-orientation. No single contingency theory has been postulated. They permit upward communication to a certain degree and ask for participation from subordinates. Leadership, as it applies to Contingency Theory, is any leadership style that fits the circumstances to accomplish a task.
The continuum depicts various gradations of leadership behavior, ranging from the boss-centered approach at the extreme left to the subordinate-centered approach at the extreme right. It also entails the leaders showing concern for the subordinates and their being friendly and approachable. They use the managerial grid as a framework to help managers identify their leadership style and to track their movement toward the ideal management style. Can the leader give something to the followers as a reward? Task Structure: The task structure means the extent to which the task requirements are clearly defined in terms of the task goals, processes and relationship with other tasks. It can result in increased motivation. Leaders who do this in a rapidly changing or crisis-laden situation are transformational leaders.
Trait Theory of Leadership 2. For example, when 1 leader-member relations are good, 2 the task is structured, and 3 position power is either strong or weak. However, this theory was too simplistic. Leadership style By combining and merging these three situational factors, arrives at several efficient leadership styles in which depending on the situation both task orientation as people orientation can be effective: Relationship: leader — group Nature of the work Leader Position Power Efficient leadership style Good Routine Strong Task-oriented Good Routine Weak Task-oriented Good Uncertain Strong Task-oriented Good Uncertain Weak People-oriented Poor Routine Strong People-oriented Poor Uncertain Weak Task-oriented Given that personality task-orientation and people-orientation is reasonably stable, the Fiedler contingency model suggests that the situation should be adapted to such an extent that it suits the leader. Applying the Fiedler Contingency Model Step 1: Identify your leadership style Think about the person who you've least enjoyed working with, either now or in the past. The Great Man theory assumes that the traits of leadership are intrinsic.
According to him, the effectiveness of the leadership style depends on the situation. Here, leaders have a high degree of confidence in subordinates. These theories stress using different styles of leadership appropriate to the needs created by different organizational situations. Fred Fiedler Contingency Model Fred Fiedler Model assumes that performance of a group depends upon leadership style and favourableness of the situation. Hersey and Blanchard define readiness as the desire for achievement, willingness to accept responsibility and task-related ability, experience and skill.
It is generally accepted within the contingency theories that leader are more likely to express their leadership when they feel that their followers will be responsive. Proponents of this theory believe that with all the factors determining the success of a leader, it is hard to predict success. Contingency Theory and Leadership Contingency Theory is a theory used every day in business, at home, in recreation, or any place where you have leadership. About the Author Eryn Travis has over 15 years of freelance-writing experience. Task structure refers to the degree to which the requirements of a task are clear and spelled out. When leaders are effective, employees are committed, motivated and high performing. Organizations: Rational, Natural, and Open Systems.