Political violence is likely to be at its greatest when regime and dissidents have nearly equal power and considerable institutional support. The Nigerian government has failed woefully to keep faith with the social contract between it and the people of the Niger Delta. Our character is manifested in behavior that is situationally directed and linked. The second is the perceived utility of such violence, based on some past experience. The objective of this study is to examine the reasons for this situation. From its beginnings in the late 1930s until today, it has been applied and studied in a variety of areas, including clinical and social psychology, ethnology, sociology, criminology, and medical research.
When the theory first appeared, it was a breakthrough in the study of social movements because it focused on variables that are sociological rather than psychological. This lashing out may be directed at another person or at an inanimate object. In defense against a mugger, for example, one may inflict hostile injury. The child may not lash out right away, instead, he may try to sneak a piece of candy. The major scientist associated with this approach is Konrad Lorenz, the author of On Aggression 1966 , which helped bring back to respectability the instinctual view of human behavior, popularized ethology, and spawned a counter-literature on aggression. The men in the front or boarder where expression of aggression would have been maximum and in accordance with their actions expressed very few aggressive feelings.
Freud's instinct theory of aggression is characteristic of most of his work, with psychic energy focused on the libido and the incessant motivation of sexual desires. Typographical errors have been corrected, clarifications added, and style updated. He not only accepts the qualities of his model, he also learns to behave like them under similar situation. And the overriding superordinate goal, self-esteem, is intrinsic to the individual. Second, we must keep in mind that aggression is subjective. Though observation of animal behaviour suggests that the innate instinct of aggression drives animals to aggressive behaviour, the same should not be generalized in case of human beings, and such generalization if made by anybody is highly questionable. Frustration is the cause of aggression and aggression is the result of frustration.
Moreover, when I let my consciousness stroll through the nested levels of my existence, I am also aware of a multitude of frustrations that reach consciousness like a flock of pheasants startled out of tall grass. Those with a tendency toward the paranoidal end are basically characterized by high tension handled by projection as a defense mechanism, and by suspicion and hostility. The aim is to overcome threat, the activity ends when the threat does. The solution thus appears clear: extensive social service and welfare programs to overcome these frustrations in the short run, and in the long run, a comprehensive institutional change to promote social equality and justice. Their power declares their identity, confronts other powers, but does not push outward and invade the being of others. Researchers suggest that after aggressive behaviors are acquired, other factors serve to maintain their presence including self-reinforcement, in which the aggressive individual is proud of his or her harmful action. Later, Freud added the concept of Thanatos, or death force, to his Eros theory of human behavior.
Dealing with frustration in an increasingly stressful environment is critical, but how many people have the tools they need to cope? We can imagine an aggressive storm that unleashes its fury, an aggressive shark that tears apart a swimmer, an aggressive dog that chases anything that moves, or an aggressive child who disrupts a household. Witness the debate over abortion, a practice that some feel is an act of aggression against a living fetus. First, in restricting the discussion to aggression within this process, I am focusing on intentional aggression. Altruistic aggression is the attacking of others on the basis of this love. The results indicate that an unfavorable outcome i.
See Horn 1966 , Cattell 1957 , and Cattell and Warburton 1967. Very often people are likely to acquire bad habits as good ones. It is engendered by low self-esteem or blocked self-assertion. And social structure often appears to be the key to understanding the more violent forms of aggression. Sears 1939 , but subsequent interest sharply declined. Usually with some exceptions, such as Runciman the perspective is monadic. On the other hand, we may act aggressively even though such needs are satiated, because it is in our character to do so in the perceived situation.
While it is yet scientifically undetermined, proponents of the genetic theory explain this presence or absence of aggression in particular breeds in terms of a single gene or interaction of genes that are currently being studied. There are two important principles underlying this theory. Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have lacked the vision to provide policy direction that could attract different investors in the colossal petrol chemical industry. Thus we can speak of identive, assertive, or forceful nonsocial aggression; or of coercive, bargaining, intellectual, authoritative, inductive, or manipulative social aggression. Are these ties useful after all? The sense of the term should equally apply to the rich person desiring a bigger yacht, the dictator wanting order, the prisoner craving liberty, the clerk wishing for a promotion, the man coveting another's wife, or the beggar hungering for food. A second aspect of my definition is that a vector of power is involved--a force toward behavior. Thus, an internal conflict arises in the young boy.
Logicfest -- and why is the workplace increasingly stressful? The third category of aggression is the drive theories, which attribute aggression to an impulse created by an innate need. The literature on these two principles and on relative deprivation is well organized in Ted Gurr's Why Men Rebel 1970 , which merits discussion. Here the discussion of distance vectors in previous volumes particularly in Chapters , , and of is relevant, and I simply note the relationship between the injustice vector and these social distances in the psychological field. In moving to the fore the idea of a death instinct, Freud developed a particularly biological conception. Events, objects, and situations take on subjective meaning depending on the cultural matrix through which we interpret reality, and on our personal history.