The cities were exclusively designed according to geographic and climatic factors. Another building nearby was either a meeting hall or a market place. However, Harappa was first described in text in 1849. The high water table means the oldest sites are under water or waterlogged and difficult to access. It consisted of the following elements: Urban Cities: There is no denying that Harappan Civilization had well-built cities. Many beautiful glazed and coloured potteries have been unearthed during the excavation.
Unfortunately it is still not possible to decipher the scripts. Building Materials There was no stone built house in the Indus cities. It is 200 feet long and 150 feet wide and further sub-divided into smaller storage blocks for storing different types of grains generally used during the period of food crisis. Within the city, individual homes or groups of homes obtained water from wells. Evidence is found of trade contacts between the Indus people and Sumerians, Egyptians and other people. By 1999, over 1,056 cities and settlements had been found, of which 96 have been excavated, mainly in the general region of the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra Rivers and their tributaries.
The cultural and technological uniformity of the Indus cities is especially striking in light of the relatively great distances among them, with separations of about 280 km 175 mi whereas the Mesopotamian cities, for example, only averaged about 20-25 km 12. Some of the gateways had attached guard rooms, which were invariably very small. Both men and women of all classes used necklaces fillets, arm lets, finger rings, and bangles. Harappan town planning — Harappan town planning — Harappan town planning. Among the discovered were beautiful glazed faïence beads.
The public building and big houses were situated on the streets. It was located in the fort-area. Science 324 5931 : 1165. Harappan Civilization Facts Till today, the Indus Valley Civilization remains one of the mists enigmatic elements of human history. In every aspect like roads, houses, drainage, bath, granary, the Harappan people have left an imprint of originality and brilliance.
There was also a decline in long-distance trade, although the local cultures show new innovations in and glass making, and carving of stone beads. Most of these boats were probably small, flat-bottomed craft, perhaps driven by sail, similar to those one can see on the Indus River today; however, there is secondary evidence of sea-going craft. It is part of the Indus Valley Tradition, which also includes the pre-Harappan occupation of Mehrgarh, the earliest farming site of the Indus Valley. Technology Great accuracy was achieved by the people of the Indus Valley in measuring time, length and mass. Querns, palettes, and jar stands figure among articles of stone.
This Civilization nourished at basins of the Indus River, which is one of the major rivers of Asia. The soak pits were made of bricks. Near the granaries were the furnaces where the metal workers produced a variety of objects in metals such as copper, bronze, lead and tin. The great bath of Mahenjo-daro indicates that the people used to bodily purify themselves by taking bath on the eve of the religious ceremony before worshipping either goddess or gods. Fuel was placed on a raised platform.
L-shaped bricks were preferred for corners. It is one of the most popular ancient civilizations in human history, also known as Indus Valley Civilization. Bet Dwarka was fortified and continued to have contacts with the region, but there was a general decrease of long-distance trade. The bricks taken from the site were more than enough to furnish 100 miles of the Lahore Multan Railway, testifying to the scale of the buildings that existed there. It is hypothesized that the proto-Elamo-Dravidian language, most likely originated in the Elam province in southwestern Iran, spread eastwards with the movement of farmers to the Indus Valley and the Indian sub-continent. The first two divisions-the 'citadel' and the 'middle town'- were fortified with stone masonry. The Indus Valley women liked to wear earrings, ornate necklaces and bangles, which were made from carnelian, gold, shells, stones and silver.
The Earliest Civilisation of South Asia Rise, Maturity and Decline. In 1875, the first seal with Harappan symbols was first published in a drawing by Alexander Cunningham. Most of these boats were probably small, flat-bottomed craft, perhaps driven by sail, similar to those one can see on the Indus River today; however, there is secondary evidence of sea-going craft. The remains are extensive, and the place, which has been built of brick, is about three miles in circumference. Roads: Roads were very wide in Harappan townships, crisscrossing the town from east to west and north to south. The overall dimension of the Great Public Bath is 180 feet by 108 feet.
It might have served the purpose of ritual bathing vital to any religious ceremony in India. Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were the earliest sites of the Indus civilization to be discovered. The complete ruin of the Indus cities could also have been due to the wiping out of their system of agriculture. The Wonder That Was India. Evidence of paved roads, drainage system, large rainwater collection, storage system, terracotta brick, statue production, and skilled metal working in both bronze and precious metals has been uncovered.