Lastly, another major part of formalist criticisms is that they mainly do not deal with things outside the text, like cultural context, historical documents, or what the author intended. New Criticism is an approach to literature made popular in the 20th century that evolved out of formalist criticism. This also could also symbolize her oppressed, sad life due to her father, possibly meaning she was dead before she actually died 437. It applies, as a term, to any argumentation about literature, whether or not specific works are analyzed. The responsibility of the reader is to discover this unity. So, rather than reading Keats as a spokesperson for the Romantics, you can just read Keats as poet who used techniques X and Y to accomplish Z.
Even though our histories and reputations are important, there's a reason why we hear again and again not to 'judge a book by its cover. Terms like paradox, ambiguity, irony, and tension help break down the story in different ways to understand the meaning new critics expect. The reader must discover tensions in the work. Instead, he believed they should be critics of past and present literature. The story revolves around the conflict between an unnamed protagonist and Sam.
A work's central themes, they thought, were really created in the dynamic interactions between the text and readers' subjective interpretations of that text. Joan Richmond English 2261 17 Feb. Coleridge was the first to describe poetry as a unified, organic whole which reconciles its internal conflicts and reaches some final balance or harmony. If The Waste Land works as a poem, then we should be able to figure out its meaning just by reading the text—we shouldn't have to consult pages of footnotes, or track down clues in Eliot's copies of his books. Known as New Criticism, this approach to literary analysis provides the reader with the formula for arriving at the correct interpretation of a text using only the text itself.
It is nor hand, nor foot, Nor arm, nor face, nor any other part Belonging to a man. Sam's stanzas are shorter than the protagonists. For example, even if we're looking at such a culturally significant text, such as Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin, we should avoid the temptation to read it as an anti-slavery novel. Richards's Richards has been called the father of New Criticism. Seuss's Green Eggs and Ham as an example and evaluate it as New Critics. The theoretical differences among the critics commonly described as New Critics not necessarily by themselves -- I.
This cruel experiment is actually exactly what Richards did in his own English classroom; Practical Criticism is his write-up of how it all went down. The key phrases are ambivalence, ambiguity, tension, irony and paradox. This is mainly the kind of criticism American students learn in high school, and it is also the basis for pretty much every other kind of critical theory and literary critical practice. Nothing works out in this play, especially at the end. This movement emphasizes the text in literature and explains the writers meaning to the reader. Like many other movements in modern criticism, New Criticism was in part a reaction against the genteel cultivation of taste and sentiment that marked late-nineteenth- and early twentieth-century criticism and against the prevalence of traditional philological and antiquarian study of literature in the academy. Like, if pink is the new black, we know that little black dresses have always been pretty rad.
Richards and from the critical essays of T. The more possible meanings a word has, the richer the ambiguity. Instead, we should read it to see how the novel's elements, such as its setting and theme, work together to produce a unified, whole text. The smell of her home due to dead bodies is so bad towns people come by to drop lime through her basement windows. New Criticism would disregard what the story's moral may be or that it may have been written to encourage children to try new things. It opposed the prevailing interest of scholars, critics, and teachers of that era in the biographies of authors, the social context of literature, and literary history by insisting that the proper concern of literary criticism is not with the external circumstances or effects or historical position of a work, but with a detailed consideration of the work itself as an independent entity.
These terms also show a conservative side to New Criticism taking away the controversial, external, social issues like race, gender and class. Most people would want to be judged off their own words and actions. In order to analyze in a new critic way its important to take notice of the terms above and the literal meaning of. Although it may be a bit silly, it's a good place to start. The primary interest is in themes.
This method of analysis become the dominant school of thought during the first two thirds of the twentieth century in most high school and college literature classes, English departments, and English and American scholarship. Or, Why is the literary canon so dominated by white people? That which we call a rose By any other name would smell as sweet. Close reading is a strategy in which you analyze a text with very great attention to detail, at the level of individual words, phrases, grammar, and structure, along with the definition and content of these words, to try to understand the way a given text functions. By defending the integrity of a work of literature as a structure of meaning apart from the unconscious psychological drives of writer or reader or the economic forces of any particular society, the New Criticism joins conservatism in affirming the creative power of human reason and imagination to resist the imperatives of our physical condition. However, the techniques of close reading and structural analysis of texts have also been applied to fiction, drama, and other literary forms. New Formalism has gained some academic ground with today's professors,. In the story the only character that is referred to as the American is the male protagonist.