At this juncture, at the Asian Relations Conference in March 1957, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru put forth the novel concept of non alignment for the common aspirations of the newly liberated countries of Asia and Africa. During the early days of the Movement, its actions were a key factor in the decolonization process, which led later to the attainment of freedom and independence by many countries and peoples and to the founding of tens of new sovereign States. A key role was played in this process by the then Heads of State and Government Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Shri Jawaharlal Nehru of India, Ahmed Sukarno of Indonesia and Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia, who later became the founding fathers of the movement and its emblematic leaders. For example, when there was a revolution in Iraq in 1958, that country withdrew from the Baghdad Pact which had been named after capital of Iraq. With the increase in the might of the Soviet Union, the emergence of governments ruled by communist parties in Eastern and Central Europe and the growing strength of communist par ties in many parts of the world, alarmed the governments of the United States, Britain and other West European countries. The testing alone of these bombs created serious hazards to life. The conference was attended by 23 Asian and 6 African countries.
Hence they opposed these alliances. The relations between them began to deteriorate and came to be characterized by what has been called the Cold War Gradually, the Cold War became more and more intense and the world was divided into two major blocs — the United States and West European countries forming one bloc and the Soviet Union and the socialist countries of Eastern Europe forming the other. The Soviet Union had treaties of friendship and mutual assistance with China. After she acquired the atom bomb, the awareness of her power was further strengthened. However, the Soviet Union and the other members of the Warsaw Pact did not have any military bases in other parts of the world.
She had suffered more than any other country in the war. Countries which wanted to pursue an independent policy and promote relations with the Soviet Union were looked upon with suspicion. The Movement played an important role in the support of nations which were struggling then for their independence in the Third World and showed great solidarity with the most just aspirations of humanity. But if we give it a positive connotation it means nations which object to lining up for war purposes, to military blocs, to military alliances and the like. These declarations had aroused hopes all over the world. Peace, development, economic cooperation and the democratization of international relations, to mention just a few, are old goals of the non-aligned countries. To promote unity, solidarity and cooperation between developing countries based on shared values and priorities agreed upon by consensus.
The Panch Shila , peaceful resolution of international disputes, and international cooperation to spur economic development which was being enhanced by domestic economic reforms were broad objectives in a changing world. According to him: 'For too long, we, the people of Asia, have been petitioner in western courts and chancelleries. Respect for the equality of rights of States, including the inalienable right of each State to determine freely its political, social, economic and cultural system, without any kind of interference whatsoever from any other State. India played host to the fourth Group of Fifteen summit in March 1994. India also participated in the 1961 Belgrade Conference that officially established the Nonaligned Movement, but 's declining prestige limited his influence. The members of this alliance were the United States, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Iceland, Portugal, Britain, France, Belgium, Holland and Luxemburg.
Baghdad Pact In 1955 the Baghdad Pact was brought into being. The most fundamental fact of the world today is the development of new and mighty forces. India under the Prime Ministership of Jawaharlal Nehru played a pioneering role in making nonalignment a major force in the world. Recognition of the equality of all races, religions, cultures and all nations, both big and small. To do so, they agreed to strengthen concrete action, unity and solidarity between all its members, based on respect for diversity, factors which are essential for the reaffirmation of the identity and capacity of the movement to influence International relations. However, in spite of these losses, her power and prestige had increased.
By appealing to the economic grievances of , Indira Gandhi and her successors exercised a moderating influence on the Nonaligned Movement, diverting it from some of the issues that marred the controversial 1979 Havana meeting. Therefore, we cannot afford to be backward. India also is a founding member of the , a group of developing nations established at the ninth Nonaligned Movement summit in in 1989 to facilitate dialogue with the industrialised countries. Rejection of and opposition to terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, committed by whomever, wherever and for whatever purposes, as it constitutes one of the most serious threats to international peace and security. The superpowers sought to win over as many small independent nations as possible. Along with the nuclear weapons and many other kinds of weaponry, new bombers, submarines and missiles have been developed which can carry these weapons over thousands of kilometers. In recent years India has used this policy to its advantage in order to strengthen external partnerships and seek out material needs when necessary, while still ensuring that India as a country is able to pursue its own foreign policy goals.
However, they began to develop some common understanding on world affairs, particularly on the question of the independence of nations which were still under foreign rule. That story must now belong to the past. They are drawn from Asia, Africa, Europe and the Americas. The growing importance of the Afro Asian countries was reflected in the United Nations where on a number of issues the countries of Asia and Africa functioned as a group. Turkey, Greece, the Federal Republic of Germany and Spain became its members later. The end of the clash between the two antagonistic blocks that was the reason for its existence, name and essence was seen by some as the beginning of the end for the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries.
This Conference was held in Bandung on April 18-24, 1955 and gathered 29 Heads of States belonging to the first post-colonial generation of leaders from the two continents with the aim of identifying and assessing world issues at the time and pursuing out joint policies in international relations. Similar developments have also taken place in Central and South America and the Caribbean. During the 1970s and 1980s, the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries played a key role in the struggle for the establishment of a new international economic order that allowed all the peoples of the world to make use of their wealth and natural resources and provided a wide platform for a fundamental change in international economic relations and the economic emancipation of the countries of the South. In 1949, the Soviet Union tested her first atom bomb. The system of alliances had been rendered meaningless by the collapse of the East European communist states, the dissolution of the , and the demise of the Soviet Union.