In the First Critique, Kant takes great pains to expose the errors that may arise from theoretical reason's quest for the unconditioned condition. As we have discussed, the First Critique's argument for the Highest Good is rooted in our need to find some motivation to act morally. From this chain of reasoning about our ordinary moral concepts, Kant derived as a preliminary statement of moral obligation the notion that right actions are those that practical reason would will as universal law. Kants Metaphysik und Religionsphilosophie, Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag. In addition, Kant distinguishes between the certainty of faith vs.
Only if we are free to choose does it make sense to say that we ought to choose this rather than that. However, as the antecedent or perhaps its ultimate ground in the Fact of Reason is not a matter of knowledge but faith, one may regard its propositional attitude as transitive to how one holds the consequent to be true. Freedom of will is a fundamental postulate of ethics. Therefore there must be a God who has power to ensure that virtue and happiness coincide in an afterlife. According to Kant, virtue is good will. This is what Kant calls the Categorical Imperative.
Most Christians would maintain that neither can we become fully adequate to God's call through our own efforts, nor even through Divine aid can we achieve this. It applies its own : law upon itself. Parkinson notes a common objection to Kant's argument: that what ought to be done does not necessarily entail that it is possible. The Virtue of Faith and Other Essays in Philosophical Theology. Ontology — Kant brought together two previously opposed strands of philosophy: Empiricism and Rationalism.
It provides a conception of ourselves which motives us to obey the moral law. Religion and Moral Reason: A New Method for Comparative Study, New York: Oxford. It must have a purely good source. Instead, so long as the ideas of reason are internally consistent, the faculty can construct a multitude of theses and antitheses about the supersensible. Some of Kant's important analyses and arguments that bear on questions of religious concepts, beliefs and practices are found instead in the works written primarily to advance the agenda of the critical philosophy he inaugurated with the 1781 publication of the Critique of Pure Reason. We ought to do our moral duty irrespective of happiness, and nothing in doing our moral duty guarantees happiness.
A second important factor in the development of his philosophical approach to understanding religion was his long-standing interest in the variety of human cultures and the dynamics of human social interaction. The dead would be then be resurrected and live in a Kingdom of God on Earth. Thus the ultimate end is the doing of duty for the sake of duty. Of course, Kant would reject these sorts of claims, and likely say that moral duty comes prior to beliefs based in empirical evidence. Our conscience could be part of our moral upbringing? Kant demystifies the Christian doctrine of original sin. He thus sought to locate the concept of God within a systematically ordered set of basic philosophical principles that account for the order and structure of world. Not only do we find powerful defenses of religious belief in all three Critiques, but a considerable share of Kant's work in the 1790s is devoted to the positive side of his philosophy of religion.
As discussed in the previous section, Kant had a reason to affirm the Highest Good in the Canon of the First Critique. He thus concludes that since the soul is simple, it is impossible for it to cease to exist. Hence, if one were to compare two beings, both equally great in all respects except that one exists and one does not, the one that does not exist, by virtue of its non-existence, is lacking a predicate that contributes to the greatness of the other. He accepted that it is not within the power of humans to bring the summum bonum about, because we cannot ensure that virtue always leads to happiness, so there must be a higher power who has the power to create an where virtue can be rewarded by happiness. The perfect world for a thief would be one in which everyone else always respected private property.
Though a postulate in general sense means to suggest or accept that something is true so that it can be used the basis of a theory, in this case it does not form basis but only presuppositions of practical import. What each of us must actually will as universal, Kant supposed, is a very rigid system of narrowly prescribed conduct. Thus a struggle between the reason and the passions goes on. It occurs, for instance, in the First Critique e. The two other postulates are considerably more difficult to stomach, and they follow indirectly from the moral law in the following manner: The moral law obligates us to work towards the highest good or summum bonum. Volition should proceed on categorical imperative. We will consider each of these arguments in turn, but before doing so, let us first explore the doctrine itself, what Kant takes to be the Highest Good.
The problem which arises immediately is that it would go against the self rewarding morality proposed by Kant if we are in look out for unknown happiness in unknown world that too like a sort of compensation for the failure to achieve happiness within the natural lives. Employee Morale refers to an attitude of satisfaction with a desire to continue and strive for attaining the objectives of a factory. Kant's Religion within the Boundaires of Mere Reason: an Interpretation and Defense, London: Routledge. Yet, Kant did not abandon his commitment to the Highest Good. We may think of moralizing as an intellectual exercise, but more frequently it's an attempt to make sense of our gut instincts.