Crisis or war are not unlikely. He offers three tentative conclusions about how to enhance the effect of interactive conflict resolution workshops on the larger conflict. Nation states are likely to remain important actors in international relations for some time to come, however, and the possibility of violent interstate conflict remains a serious concern. A sense of urgency takes over; time pressures to make decisions narrow options to little more than existing courses of action. In , Yash Ghai considers autonomy as a strategy for conflict management. Threats to security and national order emerge subtly out of social, political, economic and cultural, international, national and local conditions and events. Practitioners typically consider several specific policy instruments and strategies for dealing with each of these generic problems.
The chapter considers two questions: What is the effect of language differences within a country on the potential for violent conflict between language groups there? The intent is that over the course of the meetings the participants will come to reinterpret the relationship between their groups and the possible futures of that relationship and that this change in the perceptions of a small number of individuals will lead either directly through concrete peace proposals or indirectly e. A third important lesson concerned the degree of public support for the policy in the United States. One group called themselves the 'Rattlers', the other called themselves the 'Eagles'. § Politically active groups receive external material or rhetorical support. In , Priscilla Hayner considers official truth seeking—one of the available mechanisms for confronting past crimes of a prior regime or its armed opposition—as a mechanism for resolving and preventing violent conflict. The best way to meet the criteria seems to be situation dependent.
Both themes suggest that it may be very important to design flexibility into institutional arrangements that are intended to prevent future conflict. Marx wanted to replace this kind of thinking with something termed , the workers' recognition of themselves as a class unified in opposition to capitalists and ultimately to the capitalist system itself. Â· Rigid boundaries lead to a impermeable barriers between subsystems. Reducing or preventing violent conflict and building peace are parts of a single whole. For international actors Laitin suggests that language policies that are unfair do not justify international intervention on the grounds of incipient violent conflict. Area specialists in academia can make useful, indeed indispensable, contributions to developing and making available such knowledge, as can diplomats and other individuals on the scene of a conflict who have personal knowledge about the major actors.
Their continued importance will depend not only on their usefulness to diplomats in the aid-donor states but also on their acceptance by the parties to the conflicts they want to resolve. Paid, volunteer, or professionally trained security personnel, employed without regard to national origin and beholden to their employer rather than to any single government, could reduce the likelihood of systematic diversion of humanitarian assets to fuel violence. He is known for his extensive writings on , which have influenced numerous anti-government resistance movements around the world. The findings of science upset this view which had dominated human thought for thousands of years. Although Ward and Gumplowicz developed their theories independently they had much in common and approached conflict from a comprehensive anthropological and evolutionary point-of-view as opposed to Marx's rather exclusive focus on economic factors. A striking development since the end of the Cold War has been the emergence from relative obscurity of three previously underutilized strategies for international conflict resolution.
Normative Change Several studies in this book conclude that the success of international conflict resolution techniques as varied as economic sanctions, truth commissions, and autonomy depends on international support. How did it work out for the devs and ops teams? All these definitions need are some case studies. Are there new tools that are more appropriate for the new conditions? The authors go beyond this correlation to suggest how the enabling conditions operated to produce the outcomes in the eight cases. Which ones get in the way? In , Nadim Rouhana examines the major theoretical and methodological issues in analyzing and evaluating processes of interactive conflict resolution. They can also be highly formal and institutionalized, as in a nations written statutes. A conflict can be internal within oneself or external between two or more individuals. Yet there are key factors or variables that are likely to determine whether political disputes evolve into violence or are settled peacefully.
Â· Barulio Montalvo, Bernice Rosman, Marianne Walters. Do not forget to revert the changes Harry made to the Makefile. In terms of the social and political consequences of autonomy arrangements, Ghai finds that such arrangements typically begin as asymmetric, establishing special arrangements with the state for only certain regions or communities. Most sociologists that use this approach attempt not only to understand society, but also to reduce the social inequality in it. We call such unacknowledged or barely recognized conflicts of interests latent. In , Stern and Druckman discuss the challenges of making such evaluations. Finally, we introduce the rest of the book, in which contributors address the above questions in the general case and in the context of a set of conflict resolution techniques that are likely to be important in the coming years.
Zartman concludes that negotiations with true believers take longer to come to fruition because ripe moments are harder to find. Skilled practitioners use their judgment to combine generic and specific knowledge in order to act in what are always unique decision situations. § The geographic scope or arena for killing and destructioninternational conflicts, inter-communal conflicts, state-sponsored terrorism. Team unity is not prevalent here. Such conflicts manifest themselves at the directory tree structure level rather than at the file content level, and are known as tree conflicts. Deviance may also guide social change.
§ The vertical axis measures the levels of the conflict in terms of the degrees of cooperation or hostility between the parties in conflict. Proceeding from this framework, Jentleson assesses whether and how the post-Cold War environment has affected the efficacy of sanctions. The calm cannot be attributed to leaders of the separate groups reaching some kind of détente, rather, this calm was forced upon the parties by a stronger, outside force, Saddam Hussein. Incompatibilities can be seen in changes in objective circumstancesa lowered standard of living; demographic changes or population movements; technological changes that alter communications, material capacities, weaponry and relative power. This strategy departs radically from the logic of enduring national interests by making two related presumptions: that interests and conflicts of interest are to some degree socially constructed and malleable, and that it is possible for groups to redefine their interests to reduce intergroup tension and suspicion and to make peaceful settlements more possible. The variety, Ghai notes, also creates a danger that negotiation will lead to agreement on arrangements that are too complex to make operational, creating a conflict between immediate and long-term conflict management objectives.
For most of the conflict resolution techniques that involve conflict transformation, structural prevention, and normative change, there is no systematic body of past knowledge from the previous era that is directly relevant to current needs. Conflict is a state of discord caused by the actual or perceived opposition of needs, values and interests. Collaboration is pretty good but it's not great because it waste too much time on dealing with issues. Humanitarian assets thus fuel rather than resolve the conflicts. Is the society composed of one majority and one minority ethnic group, or is it more heterogenous, with three or more active and sizeable groups competing for political space through shifting coalitions? I suppose actually physical control can lead to structural conflict, but only if you subsume ResourceConflict underneath structural conflict. But it is only very recently that scholars have looked to cases like Scotland, Puerto Rico, the Soviet republics and autonomous regions, Catalonia, Greenland, the Native American reservations of the United States and Canada, the French overseas territories and departments, and the like to find lessons that might be informative in places like Chechnya, Bosnia, and Hong Kong see. Conciliatory behavior, moderate declarations of intent and enacting institutional reforms and policies can enhance the likelihood of non-violent outcomes to disputes.
§ Paramilitary organizations and militias grow or conduct training exercises. George Forth- Case Study and Theory Development. § The arcing line across the diagram portrays the conflict as hostilities rise and fall. Smoke 1974 Deterrence in American Foreign Policy: Theory and Practice. Controlling for levels of economic development and democracy in a country, for whether or not a minority group has an established rural base, and for levels of religious grievance, language difference has no overall effect on levels of violence but mitigates violence when religious grievances are strong. They typically stand these techniques in opposition to those they see as embodying the true spirit of international conflict resolution, which they define in terms of the use of nonviolent means in a spirit of dialogue and cooperation.